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Dyslexia and Related Disorders 

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Dyslexia is the most commonly diagnosed learning disability. The Texas Education Code (TEC) defines dyslexia as a disorder of constitutional origin manifested by a difficulty in learning to read, write, or spell despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and sociocultural opportunity [TEC §38.003(d)]. Image for illustration purposes
Dyslexia is the most commonly diagnosed learning disability. The Texas Education Code (TEC) defines dyslexia as a disorder of constitutional origin manifested by a difficulty in learning to read, write, or spell despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and sociocultural opportunity [TEC §38.003(d)]. Image for illustration purposes

Mega Doctor News

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Dyslexia is the most commonly diagnosed learning disability. The Texas Education Code (TEC) defines dyslexia as a disorder of constitutional origin manifested by a difficulty in learning to read, write, or spell despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and sociocultural opportunity [TEC §38.003(d)]. Dyslexia is generally referred to as a learning disability because it can be difficult for a student with dyslexia to succeed without proper instruction. In addition to difficulty learning to read, students with dyslexia often experience challenges with both oral and written language skills.  

Students can also experience disorders similar to dyslexia, such as developmental auditory imperceptions, dysphasia, specific developmental dyslexia, developmental dysgraphia, and developmental spelling disability. TEC refers to these as “related disorders” [TEC §38.003(d)]. In this report, the term dyslexia refers to dyslexia as well as its related disorders. During the 83rd Texas Legislature, the state passed House Bill (HB 1264), which required public school districts and open-enrollment charter schools to report information regarding the number of students enrolled who are identified as having dyslexia to the Texas Education Agency (TEA) through the Public Education Information Management System (PEIMS).  

Given this relatively recent change, TEA wanted to understand the reporting procedures used by public school districts and open-enrollment charter schools regarding the dyslexia indicator in PEIMS. In particular, TEA desired to know whether the guidance provided to districts is sufficient to ensure that students identified as having dyslexia are accurately reported in PEIMS. In fall 2018, TEA contracted American Institutes for Research (AIR) to conduct a study to describe the reporting procedures used by districts and open-enrollment charter schools with regard to the dyslexia indicator as well as to determine whether the guidance provided to districts is sufficient to ensure that students with dyslexia are correctly reported. To do so, AIR engaged in a set of four interrelated activities designed to build on each other and to provide TEA with a holistic picture of dyslexia identification and reporting procedures across the state.  

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These activities included the following:  

• Policy and literature reviews that document the history and current status of dyslexia requirements in Texas, summarize the research regarding the approximate percentage of students in public education who are identified as having dyslexia, and describe federal and state requirements and policy regarding identifying and reporting students in public education in kindergarten–grade 12  

• Extant data analyses that use quantitative analyses of data collected in PEIMS to report the percentage of students in Texas identified in PEIMS as having dyslexia, examine district use of the PEIMS indicator and the factors (e.g., district demographics, student characteristics, or available resources) associated with use (or disuse) of the dyslexia indicator as well as the percentages of students identified and reported as having dyslexia who are also identified and reported as receiving special education services and vice versa  

• Statewide district survey that reports dyslexia identification and reporting procedures for districts and open-enrollment charter schools across the state  

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• Interviews with a sample of districts and schools regarding their dyslexia identification and reporting procedures as well as interviews with education service centers (ESCs), which provide information and training to districts about dyslexia identification and reporting 

In an effort to better understand the reporting procedures used by districts and open-enrollment charter schools with regard to the PEIMS dyslexia indicator as well as to determine whether the guidance provided to districts is sufficient to ensure that students with dyslexia and related disorders are correctly reported, TEA contracted with American Institutes for Research (AIR) to conduct a study of dyslexia reporting. Results of the study are available at the link below. 

dyslexia icon 
Dyslexia and Related Disorders 

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